The goal of the human immune system is to identify microbial invasion and/or cell injury and implement a sequence of steps to remove invaders and injured cells in order to repair current and prevent future tissue injury. This high-yield course reviews concepts of Immunology for the Step 1 exam.
- Theory of the Immune Response
- Name the cellular and anatomical components of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response
- Explain the role of chemokines and adhesion molecules in lymphocyte trafficking.
- Enumerate the complex signals between the innate immune response and the bridge to adaptive immune response.
- Describe the structure, loading, and function of the Class I and II HLA molecules.
- Explain the complex signaling from the initial injury/infection site which results in the activation of the classical and alternative pathways of APC activation.
- Explain the signals delivered downstream from APC which cause the stimulation of the main TH populations (TH1 and TH2) and lesser TH cells (Treg, TH17, TH9, Tfh).
- Explain the outcome of the stimulation of different TH populations on the outcome of immune stimulation at the organismal level.
- Explain the molecular signaling necessary to stimulate the APC1-TH1 pathway and name the infectious or pathological situations in which it would be important.
- Name the 4 effector mechanisms within CMI and give examples of when each would be important.
- Clinical Applications of Immunology
- Describe the types of immunotherapies which are used in medicine.
- Know the contents of the bacterial and viral vaccines, and the strategies for their use.
- Describe the pros and cons of the 3 categories of viral vaccines as pertains to their safety and immunogenicity.
- Be able to list the common pediatric vaccines and explain how they work at the molecular level.
- Explain the role of the hapten/carrier effect in the HiB, PCV and MCV4 vaccines.
- Know the contraindications for the major vaccines.
- Predict the vaccination protocol for special risk and elderly patients and explain why they are used.
- Diagnose the primary immunodeficiencies of phagocytes, B and T lymphocytes and severe combined immunodeficiencies and explain their patient presentation and therapy down to the molecular basis.
- Explain the standard protocols for anti-microbial prophylaxis depending on CD4 count and relate them to the decline in the immune response.
- Explain how to interpret data from these sources to diagnose immune or microbial disease.
Theory of the Immune Response
Clinical Applications of Immunology